Advanced Practice of Total Parenteral Nutrition by Physicians in Saudi Arabia

International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences, 2023, 12, 3, 140–149.
DOI: 10.5530/ijpcs.2023.12.18
Published: February 2024
Type: Research Article
Authors: Yousef Ahmed Alomi, Fatma Al Raisi, Riyadh M Alashban, Ban Abdullah Aldosary, and Abdulmajeed Ali Alshehri

Author(s) affiliations:

Yousef Ahmed Alomi*,
BSc. Pharm, MSc. Clin Pharm, BCPS, BCNSP, DiBA, CDE, Critical Care Clinical Pharmacists, TPN Clinical Pharmacist, Freelancer Business Planner, Content Editor, and Data Analyst, P.O.BOX 100, Riyadh 11392, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA.

Fatma Al Raisi,
Ph.D Oman College of Health Sciences, Muscat, OMAN. Riyadh M Alashban, Medical Care Pharmacy, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA.

Ban Abdullah Aldosary,
Bsc.Pharm, Eradah Complex and Mental Health, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA.

Abdulmajeed Ali Alshehri,
MD College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, SAUDI ARABIA.



Objectives: To explore the physician’s advanced practice of Total Parenteral Nutrition in Saudi Arabia. Methods: It analyzes a cross-sectional survey that discussed advanced physician practice of Total Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of respondents’ demographic information about physicians and Advanced Practice Total Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) by Physicians, the types of prescribing, preparations, and administrations of the Total Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) system, The responsibility of Total Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs). The 5-point Likert response scale system was used with closed-ended questions. The survey was validated through the revision of expert reviewers and pilot testing. Besides, various tests of the reliability of McDonald’s ω, Cronbach alpha, Gutmann’s λ2, and Gutmann’s λ6 were done with the study. In addition, the data analysis of the Pharmacist practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) medications is done through the survey monkey system. Besides, the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), Jeffery’s Amazing Statistics Program (JASP), and Microsoft Excel sheet version 16. Results: A total number of 409 physicians responded to the questionnaire. Of them, almost one-half responded from the Northern region (186 (45.48%)), and one Quarter responded from the central area (106 (25.92%)), with statistically significant differences between the provinces (p=0.000). Females responded more than males (268 (65.53%)) versus 141 (34.47%)), with statistically significant differences between all levels (p=0.001). Most of the responders were in the age group of 36-45 years (198 (48.41%)) and 46-55 years (109 (26.65%)), with statistically significant differences between all age groups (p=0.000). Almost one-half of responders, 176 (43.03%), worked at an organization that had Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) services, with only 86 (21.03%) had been ever requested any Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) with statistically significant differences between all answers (p=0.000). The average score of items for advanced practicing Total Parenteral Nutrition services (TPNs) was (3.48). The “Patient safety system for TPN” item scored the highest (3.74). Followed by The element “Pediatrics TPN forms” (3.73) and The element “Clean room for TPN preparation” (3.73). Most physicians had Customized Total Parenteral nutrition for geriatrics 228 (55.75%) and Pediatric 225 (55.01%). In using Standardized Total Parenteral nutrition, most physicians used for geriatrics, 283 (69.19%) and 189 (46.21%), do not know how to use it. In Pre-mixed Total Parenteral nutrition, most physicians used geriatrics 211 (51.59%) and adolescents 209 (51.10%). Conclusion: The advanced practice of parenteral nutrition by physicians was adequate. One-half of physicians practice the New model of parenteral nutrition. The physician had negative perceptions of the parenteral nutrition responsibilities of the pharmacist. The advanced practice of TPN should be considered for further evaluation and accountability in medical care.

Keywords: Nutrition, Parenteral, Physicians, Practice, Saudi Arabia.

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